divine timelessness

But Leftow's argument suffers from a far more serious shortcoming than this. {11}C.D. Second, it is thought that God does not experience temporal succession. Many philosophers have argued that no one has this kind of power over the past, so human freedom is not compatible with divine foreknowledge. They also can hold that God’s life cannot be contained in the measured moments of physical time. Perhaps the effects of God’s actions are located successively in time but his acting is not. Leftow does have something relevant to say on this score. Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote. If some sentences are essentially indexical (if they do not express the same propositions as sentences of the form “event e occurs at tn“), he cannot know them. Salvează-mi numele, emailul și situl web în acest navigator pentru data viitoare când o să comentez. If the incarnation had never occurred, the divine logos would exist timelessly. The A-theory claims that there is an objective temporal now. 180-184; James F. Harris, "An Empirical Understanding of Eternality," International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (1987): 165-183; Eugene Thomas Long, "Temporality and Eternity," International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (1987): 185-189. . 2,8 (Conj. These moments stand in the successive relations of earlier and later to one another, although they are not temporally earlier or later than one another. Train Timetable Vline, with an Appendix by Florian Cajori, 2 vols. I am currently inclined to disagree with you, but I have not sought to defend divine timelessness here. God is not lacking any fact. God’s sustaining the universe in its existence at each moment is what keeps the universe existing from moment to moment. The way Craig describes his view is that God without creation is timeless; God with creation is temporal. 137-38. It is true that insofar as time plays the role of a coordinate, it is connected with a system of spatial coordinates, so that anything to which a temporal coordinate can be assigned is such that spatial coordinates are assignable to it as well. Divine Timelessness and Necessary Existence William Lane Craig. God has all of his existence. What we are saying is that somehow the divine logos appeared in time, and in the time immediately prior, the divine logos did not exist in time. But that does not show that it actually is literally described by those theories. Craig, William Lane. (1993). To take his arguments in reverse order: (i) Time is a physical reality, and a physically empty world is conceivable. Not many theologians or philosophers think that space is more fundamental than the universe. Remember the A-theory of time is the view that the most fundamental things about time are the locations of past, present and future. Does the principle of determination show that the universe had a personal cause? God must know, in his timeless state, that I am typing now. One of the reasons you might initially have trouble with this is simply that people often have trouble with divine timelessness in general. When we raise the question again tomorrow (“Can a timeless God know what day it is today?”), God knows that this second use of “today” refers to December 14. Tuam Diocesan Changes 2019, Timeless duration, in Leftow’s understanding, shares features with temporal duration. For example, God in his timeless state is omniscient. This measure is a function of the regular processes that follow physical laws. The force of these considerations is such that Stump and Kretzmann have rested their case for divine timeless eternity solely on the shoulders of this argument, commenting, No life, even a sempiternal life, that is imperfect in its being possessed with the radical incompleteness entailed by temporal existence could be the mode of existence of an absolutely perfect being. Leftow himself discusses at considerable length an analogous model of what he calls quasi-temporal eternality, which might allow for a temporal God's complete possession of His life at once. This is not necessarily to say that Bill’s view is impossible. Yet their analysis of the relation between a timeless being and events in time requires more than a loose analogy. Thus, a theist of Newtonian stripe would deny that God's necessary existence entails His atemporality, since (2) is false. He argued (in his third way) that even a universe with an infinite past would need to depend upon God for its existence. (1984). “The Unreality of Time,” in Le Poidevin, Robin and Murray MacBeath: 23-34. Toddler Gym Set, He also comes to their aid and comforts and strengthens them. To subscribe to email alerts, please log in first, or sign up for a DeepDyve account if you don’t already have one. It’s your single place to instantly One way to object to this view is to deny that propositions expressed by indexical and non- indexical sentences refer to or assert the same fact. (2002). Just as it is not quite accurate to talk about what happens before time comes into existence, we should not describe this view as one in which God used to be timeless, but he became temporal. Deciding how best to think of God’s relation to time will involve bringing to bear one’s views about other aspects of the divine nature. Philosophers generally take claims such as these as parameters for their thinking because of their concern either to remain within historical, biblical orthodoxy themselves or, at least, to articulate a position about God and time that is consistent with orthodoxy. This now is not a feature only of our subjective experience of reality but it is a piece of the furniture of the universe. Unless God became temporal at some point, God remains timeless. Doctrines pertinent to angelology/demonology may have important practical ramifications for Christian spirituality (Eph. Only to the gaze of my consciousness, crawling upward along the life-line of my body, does a section of this world come to life as a fleeting image in space which continuously changes in time" (H. Weyl, Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science [Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949], p. 116). What is needed is some non-transitive notion of God’s relation to the temporal world. If God exists necessarily, then if God is essentially temporal, time exists necessarily. But if time has no end, as Christian doctrine of the afterlife teaches, then God never becomes conscious. These considerations have led William Alston to take up the view propounded by Royce{7} and Whitehead{8} that God's specious present has the same temporal extension as the whole of time, so that God has, indeed, at least experientially, complete possession all at once of interminable life. ), 10. There can be the sort of duration that allows discrete moments to be individuated by location in the life of a metaphysically simple, timeless God. We regret the loss of the past both because our lives are short and because our memories are dim and inaccurate. Of course Jake does not cease to exist outside of the virtual reality machine, but neither are there now two Jakes. Craig’s position raises another interesting question. {14} On a tensed theory of time, God would undergo tense changes and temporal becoming but be utterly oblivious to these. As an emanative effect of God's being, time does not exist a se, even though it exists necessarily. Working within the Aristotelean framework, he considered an everlasting universe to be a very real possibility. that matters to you. Any object with a space-time location is a physical object. Florida Amendment 4, [7]. Stump and Kretzmann take their cue from Boethius who articulated what became a standard understanding of divine timelessness: “Eternity, then, is the whole, simultaneous and perfect possession of boundless life” (Boethius, 1973). When tomorrow comes, can Jeanie refrain from making the cup of tea? In this article, the term, “eternal” will be used to refer to God’s relation to time, whatever it is. Câmpurile obligatorii sunt marcate cu *. It has also been argued that the notion of atemporal duration, that Stump and Kretzmann hold to be required by the timeless view, is at bottom incoherent. John Cooper raises it in. While the proposal that God is timeless seems to offer a good strategy, at least one significant problem remains. This feature of God’s life is due to the creation of time. So events objectively are past, present or future. Afc Champions League 2015, Hopefully I have not seemed too monotonous in stressing the implications of divine timelessness, but as I said, this is a point often overlooked in discussions about the incarnation and especially when discussing the death of Christ. Premiss (2) is not uncontroversial. It would follow from this that Jesus himself truly died, and hence, again, the Trinity was reduced to a unity of two for a couple of days. (ET) for every x and every y, x and y are ET-simultaneous if and only if: If x and y are ET-simultaneous, one is timeless and the other temporal. Hence, time cannot be necessary in virtue of God's existence. Since every particle of space is always, and every indivisible moment of duration is everywhere, certainly the Maker and Lord of all things cannot be never and nowhere. idem, "Eternity, Awareness, and Action," Faith and Philosophy 9 (1992): 463. Nor does his life draw closer to its end. If God knows everything, he must know what day it is today. He explains, No being exists or can exist which is not related to space in some way. Therefore, it is better to think of God as timeless. If God is temporal, then time exists contingently and time exists necessarily. Another view is that God is “omnitemporal.” It is true on this view as well that God is not in our time, but he experiences temporal succession in his being. Arguments for the necessity of time will be considered below.). Third, this life involves a special sort of duration. This article traces the main contours of the contemporary debate. (1985). If Jeanie makes a cup of tea, God knows it timelessly. Helm, Paul. In my immediately preceding post I argued that far too much Christian theology includes unwarranted speculation—especially about God. Metaphysical time involves no metric or measured temporal intervals. "{2} By contrast a timeless God lives all His life at once and so suffers no loss. He can, therefore, be timeless. Gregory E. Ganssle He redeems his people, answers their prayer, and forgives their sin. The danger in putting it like that, however, is that it can give the impression that the divine nature disappeared while the human nature didn’t. . In this way the life of God is stretched out, so to speak, alongside temporal reality. William Lane Craig’s own position includes another variation. Drawing on Boethius's characterization of eternity as complete possession all at once of interminable life, Leftow points out that a temporal being is unable to enjoy what is past or future for it. She does need power over his timeless beliefs. The challenge might consist in finding a stable middle ground between timelessness and temporality. Divine temporality is not a departure from orthodox concepts of God. The fall of Rome is not, however, occurring at the same time that my coffee spills. . Alan Padgett (1992) has argued that Stump and Kretzmann cannot be defending anything more than a loose analogy with relativity theory here. ), I think a great deal of this speculation depends on how you define “timeless.” Does it mean completely outside of time, or does it mean existing in time but being unaffected by it? But the very nature of divine timelessness means that the logos did not have existence in time prior to the incarnation. . How He could act throughout history without any consciousness of what was happening at the time the events occurred remains a mystery. – Springer Journals. Just as in one present mental exercise, a human being can call to mind a whole series of events that are themselves sequential, God in his timeless state can know the whole sequence of temporal events non-sequentially.

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